Principles in italics are unique to this hypothesis.
1. (Newtonian) free space.
2. Hard, unbreakable and impenetrable particles of only one shape.
3. Motion of the same (with all changes in motion due to impact only, no forces)
principles; in this case conservation of mass (it is not here transferable to
energy) and conservation of motion (not energy or “force”), this would include
no spontaneous generation or loss of matter or of motion.
5. The simpler the explanation the more likely it is correct.
6. And like the above, the least possible change in the system is the one to proceed with.
7. From primary particles there must be an accretion of aggregates. Then also,
8. The collisions must not form only one (or several) large aggregate(s), but many (in total number, universe wide).
9. For a stationary mass A hit (at center of mass) by a moving mass B, B of equal mass to A, at contact B will “accelerate” A to ½ it’s velocity, it’s velocity being diminished by ½. At this point no further transfer of motion is possible as such would cause A to be moving faster than B so they would not still be in contact. If A and B are of unequal mass then B of course simply “accelerates” A so that A and B have an equal velocity.
10. Any measurement, be it distance, time or another, is infinitely sub-dividable into smaller parts.
11. Circular motion is as natural as linear
motion, that is it does not require a continual force to maintain it (see
appendix A)( it appears that natural circular motion is only on small scale, please see chapter 3. The larger circular motions of the universe are, I am supposing, from "fits and starts").
12. The speed of motion times the quantity of rod above and below any point of contact being equal, there would be no preference for rotation to occur at either arm so consider rod A accelerated as per Principal 9.
13. For any speed of motion times the quantity of rod above or below the point of contact, this being unequal, the rod rotates in the direction of the longer arm.
14. Rotational motion continues until the rod rotating reaches its mid-point and is at balance, then linear motion is formed.
1. Instantaneous motion means, in a way, that the motion in the mass area is going everywhere at once, as well as having a predominate motion, driven as it were by the inertia of current motion, and the interaction with “forces” from impacts.
2. Motion radiates to and from points of contact with other mass areas (rods)
3. As it radiates to and from the point of contact the motion in each rod is the average vector.
4. When rod B hits rod A its an angle. The motion when stopped goes every which way, finding the window of contact to be an outlet. But in going every which way it puts pressure on the longer side of each arm (a longer side exist when at a slant). This torques the rod until the sides are equal ( to a position where they are exactly perpendicular to each other) , then there is symmetry that rests the rod in that position, pressures being balanced on that “axis”.
5. When this radiation of motion, expressed with vectors, is symmetrical with respect to this/these contact points, then linear motion occurs and/or is transferred.
6. Otherwise an imbalance is present which causes pressure on longer vs shorter arms (from contact point(s)) to result in rotation in the direction of the pressure vectors (on a different axis than pressure that caused torque). That is, for an impacting rod the motion going toward the point of contact, if symmetrical, causes linear acceleration of impacted rod, else if unbalanced, rotation on impacted rod.
7. Any type of impact that presents a situation where motion cannot be expressed in space as it had been, results in transfers of motion, torque, rotation or rebound to satisfy the conservation of motion principle #4 and occurs along the lines of the other principles so mentioned here and elsewhere (in the case of rebound).
8. Impacts cause a movement of motion to the point of impact, and in so doing rods can reverse direction, either linearly or rotationally, as well as undergo torque when not perpendicular.
15.2 Upon impact, from
direct or overtaking hits, the first change in motion of one or both
particle is torque of the particle(s) to a position where they are
exactly perpendicular to each other.
15.3 The excess motion in an overtaking particle, after torque, in passing though the window of contact, means any excess motion is as rotation in a perpendicular to the overtaken particle.
15.4 A linear "testing" occurs at each point of rotation of a rod rotating on another rod. For overtaking hits this instantaneously forms a resultant with its unison overtaking motion.
15.4.1 If this secondary linear motion can be expressed, in the rod or by accelerating another rod, then the resultant with the unison linear motions are compounded
15.4.2 If this secondary linear motion is impended, as it were, before (and causing) rotation, the two linear motions merge to the resultant, forming one linear motion.
15.5 If, in the resultant impending motion of the overtaking rod, motion can be lost from the unison motion component to an increase in rotation, to make the resultant not impending, this occurs.
15.6 If in the resultant impending motion of the overtaking rod, and motion must be taken from the rotational component, this does not occur, unless the rod is at midpoint balance, but unison linear motion toward a horizon remains as it is, without regard to any change in orientation of the rod toward that same direction, until impeded by impact. Likewise the rotational motion remains at the same velocity.
16. When, after an overtaking collision of two rods, the last rod to rotate balances Midpoint to midpoint on the "direct hit" side of the other rod, its motion to impart its linear motion are contrary with its other "unison" linear motion therefore both linear motions rebound as it where within the rods to a resultant which is not compounded but one motion with the combined velocities, equal in each rod as in manner of principle 9, that is forming a unison motion.
rotating rod passes a rotational motion to any rod positioned at its midpoint
on the side of direction of the rotation.
This rotation remains as an “orbital” quality until acted on by another
18: A rod rotating in contrary directions always rebounds. A rod torquing in contrary directions, or torquing and rotating in contrary directions also rebounds, as well as a rod in contrary linear motions.
18.2 When a rod torquing loses any contact it reverts to linear motion.
18.4 A rod in virtual rotation, when given a real rotation point will always re-form a rotation off that point, regardless where that point is on the rod.
Each successive nucleon always turns in a direction toward the center of
Principle 19.2 For cases were divergence of two linear vectors is > 90o the two motions are not compounded but drawn together as one vector. However not as standard vector analysis either, but the drawn vector is in the spot as triangulated, but with the length of each vector added.
Principle 19.4 If two linear motions within a rod (A) are 180o opposite the motion within the rod, the rod is stationary in space until impact from another rod (B). Then, in principle for a midpoint to midpoint collision. all motion in the direction of the (direct) impact is transferred to the impacting rod (B), and the rod hit (A) goes off with the its other linear motion.
Principle 19.5 For combining three linear motions, two of which are in 180 degree opposite directions, each old motion "separately" compounds with 1/2 of the new (non-opposite) motion as it where to two new resultants. Those two resultants compound to a further resultant, and in that process the first 3 linear motions are erased and the resultant consists to the two secondary motions as described.
Principle 19.6 following principle 18, in cases of a rod rotating in contrary directions or a rod torqueing in contrary directions, or torqueing and rotating in contrary directions, the rebound is always at a midpoint (perpendicular) from the two opposing motions, and expressed as a resultant linear motion.
20. For motions to be compounded it must be expressed in movement “displacing space”, (which can be overlapping) completely and separately as to the distance and direction of each of the compounded motions, relative to the initial position of the rod.
ratio of elements (number of symbols) of any two infinite sets is the same as
the ratio among any finite subsets of equivalent intervals.
I-3 The ratio of quantities of any two infinite
sets is equal to the ratio of the elements.
23. There can be a unlimited amount of co-existent factors (types) to a system.
can be only two interrelated factors (types) to a system.
can be only one factor (type) that undergoes change in a system.
experience shows reality consists of aggregates (in one quality or another),
and voids (or/and less dense areas). (similar to principle 7 and 8)