Principles in italics are unique to this hypothesis.
1. (Newtonian) free space.
2. Hard, unbreakable and impenetrable particles of only one shape.
3. Motion of the same (with all changes in motion due to impact only, no forces)
principles; in this case conservation of mass (it is not here transferable to
energy) and conservation of motion (not energy or “force”), this would include
no spontaneous generation or loss of matter or of motion.
5. The simpler the explanation the more likely it is correct.
6. And like the above, the least possible change in the system is the one to proceed with.
7. From primary particles there must be an accretion of aggregates. Then also,
8. The collisions must not form only one (or several) large aggregate(s), but many (in total number, universe wide).
9. For a stationary mass A hit (at center of mass) by a moving mass B, B of equal mass to A, at contact B will “accelerate” A to ½ it’s velocity, it’s velocity being diminished by ½. At this point no further transfer of motion is possible as such would cause A to be moving faster than B so they would not still be in contact. If A and B are of unequal mass then B of course simply “accelerates” A so that A and B have an equal velocity.
10. Any measurement, be it distance, time or another, is infinitely sub-dividable into smaller parts.
11. Circular motion is as natural as linear
motion, that is it does not require a continual force to maintain it (see
appendix A)( it appears that natural circular motion is only on small scale, please see chapter 3. The larger circular motions of the universe are, I am supposing, from "fits and starts").
12. The speed of motion times the quantity of rod above and below any point of contact being equal, there would be no preference for rotation to occur at either arm so consider rod A accelerated as per Principal 9.
13. For any speed of motion times the quantity of rod above or below the point of contact, this being unequal, the rod rotates in the direction of the longer arm.
14. Rotational motion continues until the rod rotating reaches its mid-point and is at balance, then linear motion is formed.
1. Motion within a rod without contact is as is. This is primary motion type.
2. Motion on impact within that rod is to the point of contact with respect to a circular cross section cut in that rod (perpendicular to its ends). This then is either symmetrical (resulting in a linear push) or unsymmetrical resulting in a rotational push/motion. This is secondary motion type.
That is w hen this movement of motion, expressed with vectors, is symmetrical with respect to this/these contact points, then linear motion occurs and/or is transferred.
3. Motion across the window of contact to the other rod is as to a circular cross section cut on the other rod (perpendicular to its ends) and brought back though the impacting rod. This means any movement though that window of contact causes pressures related to movement to that cross section and the related point of contact. Such pressure/motion vectors are what will torque the rod. This is the tertiary type of motion.
4. After crossing the window of contact the motion fans out/radiates. This is the fourth type/level of motion, with the resulting pressures taking that rod “back” to a level one motion.
5. The vectors of motion then if symmetrical to a circular cross section that is perpendicular to the ends of the rod, and drawn from the radiation point, will result in linear motion. Else if there is an imbalance the rod rotates forward in relation to the average motion vector, "pivoting" virtually from the radiation point (though it is on the backside to the direction of rotation).
6. This causes a back swing which hits the first particle and causes motion to reverse to that point, leading to a change of rotation onto the first rod.
So, these four “levels” of motion are related to certain circumstances; free movement, impacts, the window of contact, filling new mass area, completion of the process.
8. Any type of impact that presents a situation where motion cannot be expressed in space as it had been, results in transfers of motion, torque, rotation or rebound, or vibration as a last resort, to satisfy the conservation of motion principle #4 and occurs along the lines of the other principles so mentioned here and elsewhere (in the case of rebound and vibration).
9. Impacts cause a movement of motion to the point of impact, and in so doing rods can reverse direction, either linearly or rotationally, as well as undergo torque when not perpendicular.
15.4 A linear "testing" occurs at each point of rotation of a rod rotating on another rod. For overtaking hits this instantaneously forms a resultant with its unison overtaking motion.
15.4.1 If this secondary linear motion can be expressed, in the rod or by accelerating another rod, then the resultant with the unison linear motions are compounded
15.4.2 If this secondary linear motion is impended, as it were, before (and causing) rotation, the two linear motions merge to the resultant, forming one linear motion.
15.5 If, in the resultant impending motion of the overtaking rod, motion can be lost from the unison motion component to an increase in rotation, to make the resultant not impending, this occurs.
15.6 If in the resultant impending motion of the overtaking rod, and motion must be taken from the rotational component, this does not occur, unless the rod is at midpoint balance, but unison linear motion toward a horizon remains as it is, without regard to any change in orientation of the rod toward that same direction. Likewise the rotational motion remains at the same velocity.
If on the overtaking side when C reaches its midpoint, the testing of C on A would cause A to re-rotate on C. But first a "virtual" resultant between the test linear and the already present Unison motion linear occurs (as in chapter 2 dynamics). This resultant would, if carried out, cause a new unison motion, allowing a point outward on C to contact A, but only though a small distance. However each, if possible, rotation point would be such that the next new resultant and new unison motion allows more distance to be spanned. So even though C would press on A before all motions used up, the mechanics are there so that C should literally "scoot" around A at high speed and use all motion up, until parallel with B. The time it takes to do so means AB travel a certain distance and C uses real unison motion, as above mechanics, for that portion of motion as necessary.
17.1 A rod rotating off of another develops a curvilinear motion quality in itself, not a continuously changing linear motion.
17.2 This can be transferred to other rods as long as the initial rotation point on a real rod is present.
17.3 When rods are free from pressing on points on other rods, they may continue to have curvilinear motion from within themselves, in total of off of “virtual rotation points, but further impacts will wipe away the curvilinear motion to the extent any motion causes movement to the window of contact, same occurs here as linear motion vectors.
17.4 A rod must be in balance (reciprocal symmetry) to the totality of its contact points with other rods to have and/or to pass on linear motion.
17.5 For a system of 3 particles
as in Figure 3.4 rotation and orbiting occurs as per longer force arms over
shorter until a reciprocal balance is a achieved and linear motion formed.
17.6 Whenever the vector of motion within a particle, proceeding to or from points of contact, whether linear or curvilinear notions, if in symmetry with respect to the center of mass of a particle, linear motion occurs. If not in symmetry rotational motion occurs according to the predominate length. Torque in either case may need to occur first.
17.7 A rotating of a rod continues in rotation until in balance.
17.8 A rod in balance proceeds in a linear motion until it is put out of balance.
17.9 Linear and curvilinear motions can be simultaneous in the same rod depending on how impacts are effective in relation to any unison motions that occur with other rods.
18 A rod torqueing in contrary directions, or torqueing and rotating in contrary directions rebounds.
18.2 When a rod torquing loses any contact it reverts to linear motion.
18.4 A rod in virtual rotation, when given a real rotation point will always re-form a rotation off that point, regardless where that point is on the rod.
Each successive nucleon always turns in a direction toward the center of
Principle 19.2 For cases were divergence of two linear vectors is > 90o the two motions are not compounded but drawn together as one vector. However not as standard vector analysis either, but the drawn vector is in the spot as triangulated, but with the length of each vector added.
Principle 19.4 If two linear motions within a rod (A) are 180o opposite the motion within the rod, the rod is stationary in space until impact from another rod (B). Then, in principle for a midpoint to midpoint collision. all motion in the direction of the (direct) impact is transferred to the impacting rod (B), and the rod hit (A) goes off with the its other linear motion.
Principle 19.5 For combining three linear motions, two of which are in 180 degree opposite directions, each old motion "separately" compounds with 1/2 of the new (non-opposite) motion as it where to two new resultants. Those two resultants compound to a further resultant, and in that process the first 3 linear motions are erased and the resultant consists to the two secondary motions as described.
Principle 19.6 following principle 18, in cases of a rod rotating in contrary directions or a rod torqueing in contrary directions, or torqueing and rotating in contrary directions, the rebound is always at a midpoint (perpendicular) from the two opposing motions, and expressed as a resultant linear motion.
20. For motions to be compounded it must be expressed in movement “displacing space”, (which can be overlapping) completely and separately as to the distance and direction of each of the compounded motions, relative to the initial position of the rod.
ratio of elements (number of symbols) of any two infinite sets is the same as
the ratio among any finite subsets of equivalent intervals.
I-3 The ratio of quantities of any two infinite
sets is equal to the ratio of the elements.
23. There can be a unlimited amount of co-existent factors (types) to a system.
can be only two interrelated factors (types) to a system.
can be only one factor (type) that undergoes change in a system.
experience shows reality consists of aggregates (in one quality or another),
and voids (or/and less dense areas). (similar to principle 7 and 8)