This hypothesis involves immutable-solid1 particles, with a cylindrical shape, and the motion of such a particle though space, such motion being part of the particle. No “forces” 2 are considered. Therefore, in its common sense, mass, motion, time, and space must be able to explain all physical phenomenon, including forces, mass-less particles, and waves. I suppose there would be no space between the points of the solid (and therefore certain unusual properties), and perfectly smooth (geometrical) surfaces.
As regards the shape of the particle, would not all polyhedrons never collide at their center of mass (see Chapter 2, Infinite Quantities), therefore never re-achieve linear motion (only continually spin)? Therefore only curved solids should be considered.
Further the primary particles would not be spherical as, intuitively considered, would not the system end as Brownian type movement? Therefore it would be diffuse throughout space, and matter is aggregated. The next simplest shape then is a cylinder (rod), I will take up more on that in Chapter 2.
To state some of the above as principles; a simple atomist theory might have:
1. (Newtonian) free space.
2. Hard, unbreakable and impenetrable particles of only one shape.
3. Motion of the same (with all changes in motion due to impact only, no forces).
4. Conservation principles; in this case conservation of mass and conservation of motion (not energy or “force”) 3 , this would include no spontaneous generation or loss of matter or of motion.
Continuing with a set of overriding principles, which have also proved fruitful in the past;
5. The simpler the explanation, the more likely it is correct.
6. And like the above, the least possible change in the system is the one to proceed with.
And another set of principles; using the above and the everyday observation that matter is grouped together in objects and space exists in between them, then for any system to be formed from the collisions of solid particles the results (on the most primary level) cannot be as Brownian Movement (that is, completely random), nor as totally unison motion with no interaction. Therefore :
7. From primary particles there must be an accretion of aggregates.
8. The collisions must not form only one (or several) large aggregate(s), but many (in total number, universe wide).
Now an important principle.
9. For a stationary mass A hit (at center of mass) by a moving mass B, B of equal mass to A, at contact B will “accelerate” 4 A to ½ it’s velocity, it’s velocity being diminished by ½. At this point no further transfer of motion is possible as such would cause A to be moving faster than B so they would not still be in contact. If A and B are of unequal mass then B of course simply “accelerates” A so that A and B have an equal velocity.
And two more principles:
10. Any measurement, be it distance, time or another, is infinitely sub-dividable into smaller parts.
11. Circular/Rotational motion is as natural as linear motion for rods to have. It does not require a continual force to maintain it (see appendix A).
In Chapter 2 we will look more
in-depth at these two principles, and in particular relate them to a system of two of these cylindrical particles.
1 Impenetrable, not bendable, breakable, sub-dividable or able to be split
2 See appendix F.
3 That is not to say everything must be. expressed in terms of particles, but the absence of particles might affect the system, but such effects must ultimately involve particles in terms of rate of collisions.
4 See appendix B.